EU Data Protection

On October 11, 2023, the French data protection authority (“CNIL”) issued a set of “how-to” sheets on artificial intelligence (“AI”) training databases. The sheets are open to consultation until December 15, 2023, and all AI stakeholders (including companies, researchers, NGOs) are encouraged to provide comments.  Continue Reading French CNIL Opens Public Consultation On Guidance On The Creation Of AI Training Databases

On July 4, 2023, the European Commission published its proposal for a regulation laying down additional procedural rules relating to the enforcement of the GDPR.  The aim of the proposed Regulation is to clarify and harmonize the procedural rules that apply when EU supervisory authorities investigate complaint-based and ex officio cross-border cases (i.e., where the relevant processing conducted by a controller or processor  spans multiple Member States, resulting in a “lead” authority and additional “concerned” authorities).  If adopted, the Regulation will sit alongside the GDPR, complementing the existing cooperation and consistency mechanisms set forth in Chapter VII.Continue Reading European Commission Proposes GDPR Enforcement Procedure Regulation

On April 4, 2023, the European Commission announced that the EU and Japan had successfully completed the first periodic review of the Japan-EU mutual adequacy arrangement, adopted in 2019.  The mutual adequacy recognition – whereby Japan and the EU each have recognized the other’s data protection regime as adequate to protect personal data – complements the regions’ other bilateral partnerships, such as the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, the Strategic Partnership Agreement, and the recently launched EU-Japan Digital Partnership (see our previous blogpost here).

The review process led to the adoption of two reports by the Commission and the Personal Information Protection Commission of Japan (“PPC”), each discussing the functioning of their respective adequacy decisions.  According to the Commission’s report, the convergence between the EU and Japan’s data protection frameworks has further increased in recent years, and the mutual adequacy arrangement appears to be functioning well.  We provide below a brief overview of the Commission’s main findings.Continue Reading European Commission Announces Conclusion of First Review of Japan-EU Adequacy Arrangement

On May 4, 2023, the Advocate General (“AG”) of the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) issued its opinion in case C-683/21, which examines the GDPR concepts of “controller”, “joint controller”, and “processor”, as well as the GDPR’s liability system.Continue Reading CJEU’s Advocate General Issues Opinion on Concept of Controller, Joint Controller, Processor, and Administrative Fines

In May 2023, the Spanish Supervisory Authority (“SA”) issued a detailed guidance paper on GDPR compliance in the context of data spaces.  The paper acknowledges EU and Member State level initiatives for the creation of data spaces (such as the Data Governance Act, the proposed Data Act, and the proposed European Health Data Space) and provides insight into how the SA expects companies to meet their GDPR obligations when participating in those data spaces.Continue Reading Spanish Data Protection Authority Issues Guidance on Data Spaces

On April 17, 2023, the Italian Supervisory Authority (“Garante”) published its decision against a company operating digital marketing services finding several GDPR violations, including the use of so-called “dark-patterns” to obtain users’ consent.  The Garante imposed a fine of 300.000 EUR. 

We provide below a brief overview of the Garante’s key findings.Continue Reading Italian Garante Fines Digital Marketing Company Over Use of Dark Patterns

On March 4, 2023, the European Court of Justice (”CJEU”) issued its judgment on case C-300/21, UI v Österreichische Post AG. The CJEU held that the mere infringement of the GDPR does not, alone, give rise to a right to compensation for individuals.  In the Court’s view, Article 82 requires establishing: (i) “damage”, either material or non-material; (ii) an actual infringement of the GDPR; and (iii) a causal link between the two. However, the CJEU also ruled that the right to compensation in the GDPR cannot be made contingent upon individuals satisfying a certain “seriousness” threshold, which is the case under Austrian law at present.Continue Reading CJEU Clarifies the GDPR’s Right to Compensation

On May 4, 2023, the Court of Justice of the European Union (‘CJEU’) decided, in case C-487/21, that the right to obtain a ‘copy’ of personal data means that the data subject must be provided with a faithful and intelligible reproduction of all personal data.  This can also include documents or extracts from databases containing personal data, where it would be necessary to ensure that the personal data is intelligible, as per Article 15(3) GDPR.Continue Reading CJEU Clarifies the Right to Obtain a Copy of Personal Data under the GDPR

On April 27, 2023, the Advocate General (“AG”) of the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) issued its opinion in the case C-807/21 on the conditions for imposing GDPR fines on legal persons (e.g., companies).  He opined that Member States’ law may not stipulate conditions going beyond those set out in the GDPR that make it more difficult to impute GDPR infringements to companies.  In addition, he is of the opinion that the GDPR penalties may only be imposed on intentional or negligent conducts, since the GDPR does not provide for a strict liability (no fault) system.Continue Reading CJEU’s Advocate General Issues Opinion on GDPR Fines Against Companies

On April 26, 2023, the General Court of the European Union issued its judgment in Case T-557/20, SRB v EDPS.

The Court held that pseudonymized data transmitted to a data recipient will not be considered personal data if the data recipient does not have the means to re-identify the data subjects.  The Court also clarified that an individual’s opinions cannot be assumed to be personal data; instead, a case-by-case assessment is necessary.Continue Reading EU General Court Clarifies When Pseudonymized Data is Considered Personal Data