Photo of Alix Bertrand

Alix Bertrand

Alix advises clients on EU data protection and technology law, with a particular focus on French privacy and data protection requirements. She regularly assists clients in relation to international data transfers, direct marketing rules as well as IT and data protection contracts. Alix is a member of the Paris and Brussels Bars.

On October 11, 2023, the French data protection authority (“CNIL”) issued a set of “how-to” sheets on artificial intelligence (“AI”) training databases. The sheets are open to consultation until December 15, 2023, and all AI stakeholders (including companies, researchers, NGOs) are encouraged to provide comments.  Continue Reading French CNIL Opens Public Consultation On Guidance On The Creation Of AI Training Databases

On March 2, 2023, the Court of Justice of the EU (“CJEU”) decided, in case C-268/21, that the GDPR applies to the production of evidence in civil court proceedings. The case sets limits on, but does not preclude, the production of personal data in court proceedings. 
Continue Reading Court of Justice of the EU Clarifies Rules on the Production of Evidence Containing Personal Data in Civil Litigation

As permitted by the GDPR, France has enacted some specific requirements for the processing of health data, in particular in the context of medical research.  Following a report, the French supervisory authority (“CNIL”) audited two organizations carrying out medical research in early 2022 to check their compliance with these requirements.  On March 13, 2023, the

On December 20th, 2022, the French Data Protection Authority (“CNIL”) closed down an investigation against a US company providing a browser extension (the “Company”), after finding that its activities were not subject to the GDPR. The CNIL’s decision is available here in French.

The Company provides a browser extension (the “Extension”) allowing users to obtain

With the growing use of AI systems and the increasing complexity of the legal framework relating to such use, the need for appropriate methods and tools to audit AI systems is becoming more pressing both for professionals and for regulators. The French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”) has recently tested tools that could potentially help its auditors

On March 2, 2022, following a fast-track legislative process in the French National Assembly and Senate, President Macron of France signed into law a new piece of legislation designed to reinforce parental controls over minors’ access to the Internet (the “Law”) (see final text of the Law published in the Official Journal here, in French).

The Law will apply primarily to manufacturers of devices that enable minors to access online services and content likely to harm [their] physical, mental or moral development” (e.g., computers, smart phones, and tablets).  The Law – which extends only to devices sold with an operating system (e.g., PCs, mobile phones, tablets, smart TVs) – requires manufacturers of such devices to provide a pre-installed parental control system which can be activated by parents or guardians upon first use.  The installation, use, and (where applicable) uninstallation the system must be provided to end users at no additional cost.Continue Reading France Enacts New Law on Parental Controls

On 12 January 2022, the French National Assembly’s Committee on Cultural Affairs and Education (the “Committee”) unanimously approved a draft bill seeking to “encourage the use of parental controls on certain equipment and services sold in France and allowing access to the Internet” (the “Bill”).

  1. Background

In 2021, the French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”)