Privacy & Data Security

The French Public Health Code requires that certain service providers hosting health data hold a specific “HDS” certification.  In order to obtain this certification, providers must comply with the requirements set out in the “HDS” certification standard.  On May 16, 2024, France officially published an updated version of this “HDS” certification standard.

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Yesterday, both houses of Illinois’ legislature passed S.B. 2979, a significant amendment to the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act (BIPA). The bill states that an entity that, in more than one instance, obtains the same biometric identifier or biometric information from the same person using the same method of collection, in violation of BIPA’s notice and consent requirement has committed a single violation. As a result, each aggrieved person is entitled to, at most, one recovery for a single collective violation.Continue Reading Illinois Legislature Passes BIPA Amendment Limiting Violation Accrual

After nearly six months since the initial draft was issued for public comments on September 28, 2023 (see here for our previous alert on that development), on March 22, 2024, the Cyberspace Administration of China (“CAC”) issued the final version of the Provisions on Promoting and Standardizing Cross-Border Data Flows (促进和规范数据跨境流动规定) ( “Provisions”) (Chinese version available here).  The Provisions take effect immediately.  

The newly finalized Provisions introduce significant changes to China’s existing cross-border data transfer regime.  These changes primarily involve exemptions from the previously mandated transfer mechanisms outlined in the Personal Information Protection Law (“PIPL”) and its implementing regulations.  Such mechanisms included undergoing a government-led security assessment, entering into a standardized contract, or obtaining personal information protection certification.  As a result, many companies that previously faced these requirements may now be exempt, easing their compliance burden for cross-border data transfers.  Importantly, the Provisions take precedence over any conflicting provisions within PIPL’s implementing regulations, including the Measures on the Standard Contract for Cross-Border Transfer of Personal Information and the Measures for Security Assessment of Cross-Border Data Transfer.Continue Reading China Eases Restrictions on Cross-Border Data Flows

On November 16, 2023, the European Data Protection Board (“EDPB”) issued draft Guidelines 2/2023 on Technical Scope of Art. 5(3) of ePrivacy Directive (“Guidelines”).  Article 5(3) is the provision that requires consent before storing or accessing information on an end user’s device. Over the years it has become known as the “cookie rule,” but it is technology-agnostic.  The Guidelines expand upon guidance issued by the Article 29 Working Group in 2014, and are intended to clarify when the requirement applies to new tracking methods.  The Guidelines are open to public consultation through December 28, 2023. 

The Guidelines identify and explain the four key elements that trigger the obligation to obtain opt-in consent under Article 5(3) of the ePrivacy Directive (“ePD”).  The Guidelines set forth an extremely broad interpretation of what constitutes “storing” and “accessing” information on a user’s device that arguably goes beyond the plain meaning of these terms.  This interpretation is likely to be relevant for companies considering how to approach the discontinuation of third-party cookies on many browsers.    Continue Reading EDPB Issues Draft Guidelines on Technical Scope of ePrivacy Directive Rules for Storage and Access

On October 10, 2023, California Governor Gavin Newsom signed S.B. 362, the Delete Act (the “Act”), into law.  The new law represents a substantive overhaul of California’s existing data broker statute, which requires data brokers to register with the California Attorney General annually.  The passage of the Act follows a renewed interest in data broker activity nationwide, including a request for comments from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the introduction of similar legislation at the federal level.   Below, we outline a number of key provisions:Continue Reading California Amends Data Broker Law

On 3 October 2023, the UK Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) finalized its Employment practices and data protection − Monitoring workers guidance (“Guidance”) to account for new types of work, including work from home, and the use of more sophisticated technologies for monitoring. In November 2022, we published a detailed blog post on the ICO’s public consultation.

The finalized Guidance is aimed at employers. It does not prevent employers from engaging in monitoring; rather, it sets out how they can do so in compliance with data protection law.  The Guidance defines “monitoring workers” as “any form of monitoring of people who carry out work on [an employer’s] behalf” and can include “monitoring workers on particular work premises or elsewhere” both during and outside working hours. The Guidance is clear that it applies to homeworking.  It also applies to a range of monitoring technologies and purposes, including (but not limited to) technologies for monitoring timekeeping or access control; keystroke monitoring to track, capture and log keyboard activity; and productivity tools which log how workers spend their time.Continue Reading UK Information Commissioner’s Office Releases New Guidance for Monitoring at Work

In the past year, plaintiffs have filed a wave of lawsuits asserting claims under the Video Privacy Protection Act (“VPPA”) in connection with the alleged use of third-party pixels on websites that offer video content.  A recent decision establishes the limits of the VPPA’s reach and provides a well-reasoned ground for future motions to dismiss.

On June 22, 2023, the Oregon state legislature passed the Oregon Consumer Privacy Act, S.B. 619 (the “Act”).  This bill resembles the comprehensive privacy statutes in Colorado, Montana, and Connecticut, though there are some notable distinctions.  If passed, Oregon will be the twelfth state to implement a comprehensive privacy statute, joining California, Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut

On 29 March 2023, the UK Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) published updated Guidance on AI and data protection (the “Guidance”) following “requests from UK industry to clarify requirements for fairness in AI”. AI has been a strategic priority for the ICO for several years. In 2020, the ICO published its first set of guidance on AI (as discussed in our blog post here) which it complemented with supplementary recommendations on Explaining Decisions Made with AI and an AI and Data Protection risk toolkit in 2022. The updated Guidance forms part of the UK’s wider efforts to adopt a “pro-innovation” approach to AI regulation which will require existing regulators to take responsibility for promoting and overseeing responsible AI within their sectors (for further information on the UK Government’s approach to AI regulation, see our blog post here).

The updated Guidance covers the ICO’s view of best practice for data protection-compliant AI, as well as how the ICO interprets data protection law in the context of AI systems that process personal data. The Guidance has been restructured in line with the UK GDPR’s data protection principles, and features new content, including guidance on fairness, transparency, lawfulness and accountability when using AI systems.Continue Reading UK ICO Updates Guidance on Artificial Intelligence and Data Protection

On 29 March 2023, the UK Government published a White Paper entitled “A pro-innovation approach to AI regulation” (“White Paper”). The White Paper elaborates on the approach to AI set out by the Government in its 2022 AI Governance and Regulation Policy Statement (“Policy Statement” – covered in our blog post here). This announcement comes following the Government’s commitments, in the Spring Budget 2023, to build an expert taskforce to develop the UK’s capabilities in AI foundation models and produce guidance on the relationship between intellectual property law and generative AI (for more details of these initiatives, see here).

In its White Paper, the UK Government confirms that, unlike the EU, it does not plan to adopt new legislation to regulate AI, nor will it create a new regulator for AI (for further details on the EU’s proposed AI regulation see our blog posts here and here). Instead, the UK would require existing regulators, including the UK Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”), to take responsibility for the establishment, promotion, and oversight of responsible AI in their respective sectors. Regulators’ activities would be reinforced by the establishment of new support and oversight functions within central Government. This approach is already beginning to play out in certain regulated areas in the UK. For example, in October 2022, the Bank of England and Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) jointly released a Discussion Paper on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning considering how AI in financial services should be regulated and, in March 2023, the ICO updated its Guidance on AI and Data Protection.  Continue Reading UK Government Adopts a “Pro-Innovation” Approach to AI Regulation