While the EU Directive on Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts prohibits certain clauses in standard (i.e., unilaterally imposed) contracts between businesses and consumers, some recently enacted EU laws restrict the use of certain clauses in standard contracts between businesses (“B2B”). The Data Act is the latest example of such a law, as it prohibits certain “unfair contractual terms” (“Unfair Clauses”) in standard contracts between businesses relating to the access and use of data. As such, it has a potentially very wide scope. Businesses entering into such a contract should therefore ensure that they do not include any clause that could be considered “unfair” because such a clause would not be binding on the other party to the contract. This blog post focuses specifically on the Data Act’s provision on Unfair Clauses. For more information on the Data Act, see our previous blog post.Continue Reading EU Data Act Regulates Business-to-Business Contracts Relating to Access and Use of Data
Anna Sophia Oberschelp de Meneses is an associate in the Data Privacy and Cybersecurity Practice Group. Anna is a qualified Portuguese lawyer, but is both a native Portuguese and German speaker. Anna advises companies on European data protection law and helps clients coordinate international data protection law projects. She has obtained a certificate for "corporate data protection officer" by the German Association for Data Protection and Data Security ("Gesellschaft für Datenschutz und Datensicherheit e.V."). She is also Certified Information Privacy Professional Europe (CIPPE/EU) by the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP). Anna also advises companies in the field of EU consumer law and has been closely tracking the developments in this area. Her extensive language skills allow her to monitor developments and help clients tackle EU Data Privacy, Cybersecurity and Consumer Law issues in various EU and ROW jurisdictions.
2023 was marked by the adoption of key EU legislation in the field of data privacy, such as the Digital Services Act (“DSA”) and Digital Markets Act (“DMA”). Both introduce limitations and obligations on online platforms that process personal data for digital advertising. Ahead of the DSA and DMA’s implementation deadlines in February and March 2024 respectively, we will discuss below the key requirements they introduce specifically in relation to online targeted advertising. This blog post complements our previous blog post on the EU’s targeted advertising rules.Continue Reading Rules on Targeted Advertising: What do the Digital Markets Act and Digital Services Act Say?
While the EU GDPR regulates the international transfer of personal data, several recently enacted EU laws regulate the international transfer of non-personal data, which is any data that is not “personal data” under the GDPR. In other words, these new laws apply to data that does not relate to an identified or identifiable natural person, including anonymized data and data about industrial equipment, significantly expanding the types of data subject to international transfer restrictions. Some of this legislation has been enacted recently, and other legislation on this topic is making its way through the legislative process but has yet to be adopted. In this blog post, we outline the current and forthcoming EU legislation on the international transfer of non-personal data.Continue Reading EU Rules Restricting the International Transfers of Non-Personal Data
Several EU data protection supervisory authorities (“SAs”) have recently issued guidance on cookies. On January 11, 2024, the Spanish SA published guidance on cookies used for audience measurement (often referred to as analytics cookies) (available in Spanish only). On December 20, 2023, the Austrian SA published FAQs on cookies and data protection (available in German only). On October 23, 2023, the Belgian SA published a cookie checklist (available in Dutch and French).
The new guidance builds on existing guidance but addresses some new topics which we discuss below.Continue Reading EU Supervisory Authorities Publish New Guidance on Cookies
The EU Digital Services Act (“DSA”) will start applying from February 17, 2024 to a broad array of intermediary services offered in the EU, including online marketplaces, web-hosting services, cloud services, search engines, and social media platforms. The DSA will require these providers to include certain information in their existing terms and conditions (“T&Cs”). We set out below an overview of the chief changes providers will need to make to their T&Cs in light of the DSA.
(For a general overview of the DSA, its scope of application and obligations, see our previous blog posts here, here and here).Continue Reading Digital Services Act’s Impact on Terms of Service
Digital health apps are increasingly used in practice. They raise various questions under regulatory and data protection and data security laws. On November 6, 2023, the German Conference of the Independent Data Protection Supervisory Authorities (Datenschutzkonferenz, DSK), a national body which brings together Germany’s federal and regional data protection authorities, issued a paper about the GDPR’s application to cloud-based digital health applications (“health apps”) that are not subject to the German Digital Health Applications Ordinance (Digitale Gesundheitsanwendungen-Verordnung, the “DiGA Regulation”).Continue Reading German Data Protection Authorities Publish Paper on Cloud-Based Digital Health Applications
On October 26, 2023, the European Court of Justice (“CJEU”) decided that the GDPR grants a patient the right to obtain a copy of his or her medical record free of charge (case C-307/22, FT v DW). As a result, the CJEU held that a provision under German law that permitted doctors to ask their patients to pay for the costs associated with providing access to their medical record is contrary to EU law.Continue Reading CJEU Holds That GDPR Right of Access Overrules Local Laws
On October 17, 2023, the European Commission adopted a proposal to review the Alternative Dispute Resolution (“ADR”) framework. The review consists of: (i) a proposal to amend the ADR Directive; (ii) a proposal to repeal the Online Dispute Resolution (“ODR”) Regulation; and (iii) a recommendation addressed to online marketplace and EU trade associations.
On May 4, 2023, the Advocate General (“AG”) of the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) issued its opinion in case C-683/21, which examines the GDPR concepts of “controller”, “joint controller”, and “processor”, as well as the GDPR’s liability system.Continue Reading CJEU’s Advocate General Issues Opinion on Concept of Controller, Joint Controller, Processor, and Administrative Fines
In May 2023, the Spanish Supervisory Authority (“SA”) issued a detailed guidance paper on GDPR compliance in the context of data spaces. The paper acknowledges EU and Member State level initiatives for the creation of data spaces (such as the Data Governance Act, the proposed Data Act, and the proposed European Health Data Space) and provides insight into how the SA expects companies to meet their GDPR obligations when participating in those data spaces.Continue Reading Spanish Data Protection Authority Issues Guidance on Data Spaces