France

On October 11, 2023, the French data protection authority (“CNIL”) issued a set of “how-to” sheets on artificial intelligence (“AI”) training databases. The sheets are open to consultation until December 15, 2023, and all AI stakeholders (including companies, researchers, NGOs) are encouraged to provide comments.  Continue Reading French CNIL Opens Public Consultation On Guidance On The Creation Of AI Training Databases

With the growing use of AI systems and the increasing complexity of the legal framework relating to such use, the need for appropriate methods and tools to audit AI systems is becoming more pressing both for professionals and for regulators. The French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”) has recently tested tools that could potentially help its auditors

On March 2, 2022, following a fast-track legislative process in the French National Assembly and Senate, President Macron of France signed into law a new piece of legislation designed to reinforce parental controls over minors’ access to the Internet (the “Law”) (see final text of the Law published in the Official Journal here, in French).

The Law will apply primarily to manufacturers of devices that enable minors to access online services and content likely to harm [their] physical, mental or moral development” (e.g., computers, smart phones, and tablets).  The Law – which extends only to devices sold with an operating system (e.g., PCs, mobile phones, tablets, smart TVs) – requires manufacturers of such devices to provide a pre-installed parental control system which can be activated by parents or guardians upon first use.  The installation, use, and (where applicable) uninstallation the system must be provided to end users at no additional cost.Continue Reading France Enacts New Law on Parental Controls

On 12 January 2022, the French National Assembly’s Committee on Cultural Affairs and Education (the “Committee”) unanimously approved a draft bill seeking to “encourage the use of parental controls on certain equipment and services sold in France and allowing access to the Internet” (the “Bill”).

  1. Background

In 2021, the French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”)

On December 22, 2020, the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (“ENISA”) published a draft scheme for cloud services (see press release here and scheme here). Cloud services that meet the security requirements of the scheme will be able to obtain a certification attesting their level of cybersecurity. The draft scheme is available for public consultation until February 7, 2021.
Continue Reading The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity Publishes a Draft Certification Scheme for Cloud Services

On October 1, 2020, the French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”) published the final version of its Guidelines on cookies and other tracking technologies (hereafter, “guidelines” – see announcement here, and guidelines here, in French), as well as an adjoining set of best practice recommendations (in French) with examples on how to implement the guidelines.  In this blog post, we summarize the key points mentioned in the CNIL’s guidelines.
Continue Reading French Supervisory Authority Publishes Final Version of Cookie Guidelines, Says It Will Start Enforcing Them in April 2021

On June 19, 2020, the French Council of State (Conseil d’État) decided that the French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”) had gone too far in its guidance on cookies and similar technologies when it stated that conditioning a user’s access to a website upon his or her acceptance of certain cookies (commonly known as “cookie walls”) is never compliant with the consent requirements in the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”).

According to the Council of State, such a blanket prohibition cannot be deduced from the text of the GDPR. The Council of State reminded the CNIL that its guidance is only soft law and therefore must follow the text of the GDPR. The CNIL has announced that it will adapt its guidance in light of the Council of State’s decision. The decision serves as a stark reminder that even EDPB or CNIL guidance is can only interpret the text of the GDPR, and cannot break fresh legal ground.
Continue Reading French Council of State Decides that the French Supervisory Authority Cannot Prohibit Cookie Walls

On June 2, 2020, the French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”) published a paper on algorithmic discrimination prepared by the French independent administrative authority known as “Défenseur des droits”.  The paper is divided into two parts: the first part discusses how algorithms can lead to discriminatory outcomes, and the second part includes recommendations on how to identify and minimize algorithmic biases.  This paper follows from a 2017 paper published by the CNIL on “Ethical Issues of Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence”.
Continue Reading French CNIL Publishes Paper on Algorithmic Discrimination

On November 15, 2019, the French Supervisory Authority (“CNIL”) published guidance on the use of facial recognition. The guidance is primarily directed at public authorities in France that want to experiment with facial recognition.

The guidance warns that this technology risks leading to biased results because the algorithms used are not 100% reliable and the