On July 30, 2020, the UK Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) published its final guidance on Artificial Intelligence (the “Guidance”).  The Guidance sets out a framework for auditing AI systems for compliance with data protection obligations under the GDPR and the UK Data Protection Act 2018.  The Guidance builds on the ICO’s earlier commitment to enable good data protection practice in AI, and on previous guidance and blogs issued on specific issues relating to AI (for example, on explaining decisions on AI, trade-offs, and bias and discrimination, all covered in Covington blogs).

Continue Reading UK ICO publishes guidance on Artificial Intelligence

On April 17, 2020, the UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) issued an opinion on the recently announced Apple-Google initiative to develop a Bluetooth-based Contact Tracing Framework (“CTF”) to help prevent the spread of COVID-19.  The ICO opinion is generally supportive of the Apple-Google proposal and perceives it to be, at this early phase, aligned with principles of data protection by design and by default.  The ICO also cautions that since apps developed under the CTF could also be used to collect additional data using other techniques beyond those currently planned, developers of such apps must ensure compliance with data protection laws.

Continue Reading UK ICO Issues Opinion on Apple-Google Initiative for a Contact Tracing Framework

On 1 April 2020, the UK Supreme Court handed down its ruling in WM Morrison Supermarkets plc v Various Claimants [2020] UKSC 12.  The Court ruled that Morrisons was not vicariously liable for a data breach deliberately perpetrated by an employee.  The judgment is significant in that it overturned the decisions of the two lower courts (the High Court and Court of Appeal) and provides guidance for employers on when they may be held vicariously liable for data breaches and other violations of the GDPR involving employees, who act as independent controllers in their own right.

Continue Reading UK Supreme Court Rules That Supermarket Is Not Vicariously Liable For Data Breach Committed By Employee

On November 14, 2019, the UK Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) published detailed guidance on the processing of special category data.  The guidance sets out (i) what are the  special categories of data, (ii) the rules that apply to the processing of special category data under the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and UK Data Protection Act 2018 (“DPA); (iii) the conditions for processing special category data; and (iv) additional guidance on the substantial public interest condition, including what is an “appropriate policy document”.

Under the GDPR, stricter rules apply to the processing of special category data, which includes genetic and biometric data as well as information about a person’s health, sex life, sexual orientation, racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, and trade union membership.  As noted in the guidance, there is a presumption that “this type of data needs to be treated with greater care”  because the “use of this data could create significant risks to the individual’s fundamental rights and freedoms”.  This blog post provides a summary of the key takeaways from the ICO’s guidance.
Continue Reading UK ICO Publishes New Guidance on Special Category Data

On October 31, 2019, Elizabeth Denham, the UK’s Information Commissioner issued an Opinion and an accompanying blog urging police forces to slow down adoption of live facial recognition technology and take steps to justify its use.  The Commissioner calls on the UK government to introduce a statutory binding code of practice on the use of biometric technology such as live facial recognition technology.  The Commissioner also announced that the ICO is separately investigating the use of facial recognition by private sector organizations, and will be reporting on those findings in due course.

The Opinion follows the ICO’s investigation into the use of live facial recognition technology in trials conducted by the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) and South Wales Police (SWP).  The ICO’s investigation was triggered by the recent UK High Court decision in R (Bridges) v The Chief Constable of South Wales (see our previous blog post here), where the court held that the use of facial recognition technology by the South Wales Police Force (“SWP”) was lawful.

The ICO had intervened in the case.  In the Opinion, the Commissioner notes that, in some areas, the High Court did not agree with the Commissioner’s submissions.  The Opinion states that the Commissioner respects and acknowledges the decision of the High Court, but does not consider that the decision should be seen as a blanket authorization to use live facial recognition in all circumstances.


Continue Reading AI/IoT Update: UK’s Information Commissioner Issues Opinion on Use of Live Facial Recognition Technology by Police Forces

R (on the application of Edward Bridges) v The Chief Constable of South Wales [2019] EWHC 2341 (Admin)

Case Note

Introduction

In Bridges, an application for judicial review, the UK High Court (Lord Justice Haddon-Cave and Mr. Justice Swift) considered the lawfulness of policing operations conducted by the South Wales Police force (“SWP”) which utilised Automated Facial Recognition (“AFR”) technology.  The Court rejected Mr Bridges’ allegations that the SWP’s conduct was unlawful as contrary to the European Convention on Human Rights (“ECHR”), Article 8, the Data Protection Acts 1998 and 2018 (“DPA 98 and 18”), and the Equality Act 2010.  In this blog post we consider several key aspects of the case.


Continue Reading UK Court upholds police use of automated facial recognition technology

At the Black Hat conference in Las Vegas last week, a security researcher presented his research on using access rights available under the GDPR for identity theft purposes (slides available here; whitepaper available here).  Specifically, the researcher “attempted to steal as much information as possible” about his fiancé by submitting GDPR access requests

On July 25, 2019, the UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) published a blog on the trade-offs between different data protection principles when using Artificial Intelligence (“AI”).  The ICO recognizes that AI systems must comply with several data protection principles and requirements, which at times may pull organizations in different directions.  The blog identifies notable trade-offs that may arise, provides some practical tips for resolving these trade-offs, and offers worked examples on visualizing and mathematically minimizing trade-offs.

The ICO invites organizations with experience of considering these complex issues to provide their views.  This recent blog post on trade-offs is part of its on-going Call for Input on developing a new framework for auditing AI.  See also our earlier blog on the ICO’s call for input on bias and discrimination in AI systems here.


Continue Reading ICO publishes blog post on AI and trade-offs between data protection principles

On July 16, 2019, the UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) released a new draft Data sharing code of practice (“draft Code”), which provides practical guidance for organizations on how to share personal data in a manner that complies with data protection laws.  The draft Code focuses on the sharing of personal data between controllers, with a section referring to other ICO guidance on engaging processors.  The draft Code reiterates a number of legal requirements from the GDPR and DPA, while also including good practice recommendations to encourage compliance. The draft Code is currently open for public consultation until September 9, 2019, and once finalized, it will replace the existing Data sharing code of practice (“existing Code”).

Continue Reading ICO Launches Public Consultation on New Data Sharing Code of Practice

Back in 2013, we published a blog post entitled, “European Regulators and the Eternal Cookie Debate” about what constitutes “consent” for purposes of complying with the EU’s cookie rules.  The debate continues…  Yesterday, the ICO published new guidance on the use of cookies and a related “myth-busting” blog post.  Some of the